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June 2023: page redone and complete, addition of a presentation. The two books completed.
The purpose of these pages and books is entirely original: to extend the science knowledge and methods (epistemology) to a domain they were considered unable to grasp: consciousness, the Qualia, and its attributes like ethics, happiness, etc.
For this purpose, «General Epistemology» does not question traditional science. On the contrary, it adapts the traditional methods, so as to be able to study the «abstract» domains of consciousness, which are the most relevant for us. The result is the «Logical Self-Generation Theory», able to apprehend the functionning of consciousness. But it was also found to explain physics.
See the presentation further.
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The forums of this site are now in the group «Shedrupling University» in Discord, under the name of Yichard Muni. You will probably need to contact me in facebook, under the name of Richard Trigaux, in order to get an invitation.
leading to a general explanation of consciousness, by Richard Trigaux, independent thinker with both a science background and a spiritual background.
General Epistemology is an attempt to extend the recognized science methods (epistemology and methodologies) to fields they are yet unable to grasp (in 2023), like consciousness, ethics, and heretic «parapsychological» phenomena.
The Logical Self Generation Theory is one of the first results of the previous: a general explanation of how things come into existence. It leads to recognized science theories in physics (2022), without invoking any unprovable metaphysical entity. But it also apprehends consciousness and parapsychological phenomena.
This book deals with topics such as consciousness, that some people consider pseudo-science. However, a topic cannot in itself be pseudo-science, only the method can be. For this reason, I was cautious to reason scientifically, while accounting of the science criticism on these topics. On the other hand, there is indeed a lot of pseudo-science blather on these subjects, which acts as boosting disinformation against my work. Thanks not to judge my work after what others do.
In the 1970', science was still very much instrumentalized to promote technocracy and materialism, under capitalist or marxist political control. This was the great epoch of frantic nuclear plants building and anti-ecology (Heidelberg appeal, denounced since as a manipulation)
Today (2023) things bettered a lot, especially on ecology, where science even took the leadership. But mainstream science is still stuck on one paramount point: the nature and functioning of consciousness. As to psychophysical («parapsychological») phenomena involving interactions between consciousness and matter, they are still considered heretic, despite the accumulation of evidences, and even of semi-public strong cases.
It was to correct this situation that I wrote «General Epistemology version 1» in 1999. I had to withdraw this version, because of errors it contained, more the lack of a serious publisher.
So, starting 2003, I put on my Internet site a corrected and enhanced version 2 of General Epistemology, completed in 2021.
Then I realized that it is a very big book, almost encyclopedic, with long preambles that very few people will read until the main point. So I created «Summary of General Epistemology». But it is still quite long, so in June 2023 I added this introduction that you are reading now. It has, however, the inconveniences of its advantages: the justifications and discussions of the longer version are missing.
Please note that, unless otherwise indicated, the ideas presented here should not be interpreted according to any other thought system. All sources of which I am aware of are indicated in the long version.
What prompted me to write this book was the assertion that «since consciousness is unobservable, then it does not exist», implicit or even explicit (Vienna Circle) in almost all popularization science articles of the 1970s and 1980s. The real reason behind these convoluted pseudo-philosophies was that science was still serving as a justification for capitalism/Marxism, atheistic materialism, technocracy and the destruction of nature.
Yet this assertion is totally alien to all our common experience: our consciousness is the first thing we perceive when we wake up, even for a slug. This very simple observation leads to a way of extending scientific methods to consciousness.
Indeed, classical scientific methodology is based on the observation of experimental results. But today, despite commendable progress, scientific practice still contains an implicit dogma: materialism. We make material observations, to obtain material evidence.
This works very well in physics, but it cannot give us any information about immaterial elements, such as consciousness.
Fortunately, this situation is not new, and it was already resolved millennia ago by mathematicians, who also deal with immaterial elements. They know how to base all their demonstrations on mathematical theories, mathematical elements and mathematical proofs. They even explicitly reject all material proofs for their theorems.
So, using theories of consciousness, observing elements of consciousness, obtaining consciousness proofs from observations of consciousness can also lead to a true science of consciousness. Not a denial, not a neural reductionism, not even an «emergent property».
The union of these three fields, physics, mathematics and consciousness, is what I call «General Epistemology». I say all three, although only the last is my addition.
Of course, there are differences between the three areas. The discussion is in the second part of «General Epistemology».
We often hear that consciousness facts being «immaterial», or «abstract», they would thus be irrelevant to explain the physical world, including our behaviors and motives.
However there is a precedent of immaterial facts which exist: mathematical facts. For instance the equation x2-4=0 has two solutions: +2 and -2. Can we create a third solution? No we cannot. It is this impossibility that mathematicians summarize with saying that these two solutions exist, and any other does not exist. In total independence of any material object.
We then pose one of the very foundation of General Epistemology, and of the Logical Self Generation theory which follows: there is no hierarchy of existence between material elements, mathematical elements or consciousness elements.
The fallacy of not recognizing this basis is the materialism dogma, and the root cause why today mainstream science is still unable of apprehending consciousness. Or some scientists lure themselves with reductionism.
But if material facts are no more existent than mathematical facts, how can we still observe them, or feel them as «concrete»?
Enters the Logical Self Generation theory.
The simplest logical self generation system is a mathematical series. Its elements, the «nibs», are numbers, and each number is obtained by applying a logical self-generation law to the previous. For instance if we have an element x, the next is x+1. This defines a whole suite of numbers, in a totally deterministic way.
We can define any kind of series, using numbers as nibs, or points in a space, veggies, chess men with chess rules as self-generation laws, etc. An important point to be kept in mind is that a logical self-deneration system is a set, in the meaning of the Sets Theory, rigged with an internal composition law, the logical self-generation law. We can even easily get a structure, for instance the space of polynomials ℝ3. So that, why not the quantum events of physics as nibs, using the laws of physics as the self-generation law, resulting in a structure of Minkowski space (The one of Relativity).
Logical self generation processes are studied in the third part of «General Epistemology», about «metaphysics»
Chapter 3 details the complete theory: how logical self-generation processes can exist, start, fork, etc. But it also deals with the founding role of paradoxes and indeterminacy, see of adding new self-generation laws along the way:
So here is the answer to the above question: since our sensory organs are part of the logical self-generating process of the physical world, they receive information from the surrounding particles and events. They then transmit this information to our consciousness, which then creates the sensation of concrete existence.
But consciousness incarnated in an imaginary process would feel exactly the same thing! For them, their imaginary universe would be totally indistinguishable from our physical universe, which we call «real».
We therefore posit that any logical self-generating process exists, from the point of view of observers within it, without the need for its elements to «exist» by themselves or from any external causes. So we stop confusing «observable» with «existent».
Hence the uselessness of the materialist dogma to explain the world. At last a good use of Occam's razor, ha ha ha!
When physicists discovered electricity, it was a totally new entity, with no mechanical explanation. So they had to write equations and theorems using an ad-hoc «electric charge» about which they had no definition or even not the slightest explanation of «what it is made of». Still today we have none. Yet this does not prevent computers and power grids to operate, without Vienna Circle blokes coming along saying that electricity is linguistic.
So we can blissfully do the same for consciousness: we posit that an individual consciousness is a logical self-generation process, a chaining of elements of the consciousness experience: sensations, emotions, thoughts, intents, images, sounds, etc. without need to «define» «what they are made of». This very simple explanation of the Qualia is yet already powerful enough to predict that consciousness must continue on its own after death. A fact confirmed by the scientific observation of the NDE.
This leads to an explanation of the «soul» of the religions, without positing any metaphysics: the «soul» is the logical self-generation process of consciousness, the continuous flow of consciousness experiences.
It is the discoveries of neuroscience which mislead scientists about the nature of consciousness: our consciousness experiences occur when certain neuronal networks in the brain produce specific electrical signals. Hence the explanations like reducing consciousness to brain activity alone, at best an emergent property. This explanation cannot hold, since consciousness, the Qualia, necessarily has an immaterial nature.
This relationship between consciousness and the brain can be explained if the logical self-generation process of consciousness forked from the process of physics, in the course of the brain's evolution. On this occasion, consciousness retained among its set of self-generating laws the ability to receive information from a given material brain.
This relationship is even very precise, between brain areas and types of experience, and even between neural learning and experiences. I then call a cyrlikar the bijective functional association between a set of neural learning in a given neural network, and the set of consciousness experiences it provokes, like for instance colors in the brain area of vision.
This one-way flow of information leads many scientists to believe that we do not have free will. In order to avoid appalling errors, we start to define free will as a choice of our consciouness towards the good (see our definition in the full text). Then the consciousness logical self-generation process must influence the brain physical self-generation process (How this can happen is explained in the full text). This is why free-will is a strong proof of the whole theory. We shall see others, even more extraordinary proofs.
This also is how operates the spiritual awakening: by a progressive power taking of consciousness over the brain. The uncontrolled amoral activity of the brain then appears as a source of illusions: the ego. Its overwhelming power comes from the fact that our consciousness has build an enormous grasping at the activity of the brain, to the point of being totally submitted to it, as described by the neurosciences. This is why spiritual awakening is long and requires a slow training into unraveling all these illusions. But once achieved, it can provide with extraordinary results.
We also define the «meaning of life» as the specific purposes of consciousness, independently of any material, neurological, genetic, ideological purpose. Free will allows to become aware of it, with the help of a little experiment provided in the two large versions.
You can easily do the experiment yourself, in some minutes, before reading the results. This experiment shows that, despite the huge variety of concepts and personal tastes, there is a definite, reasonable and valid meaning of life, from which we can infer an objective definition of the good and the evil. This then allows to derive a scientific ethics, and a project for a better society.
What some call God, and that we call Transcendence to be neutral, is not a power external to us, but the very functioning of the self-generation laws of consciousness, which tends to always produce a very specific result. This explains why all contacts produce similar results, despite the variety of concepts used throughout History. The main book contains a thorough discussion of several arguments.
The part also deals with states of consciousness, neurotic and psychotic consciousness, education, communion with nature, consciousness of robots, and the planetary logos.
The meaning of life seen in chapter V-5 allows to derive an objective definition of the good and the evil, and thus a scientific ethics, after the real needs of consciousness. It is exposed in three bases:
1) The good is what promotes pleasure, happiness, freedom and knowledge.
2) The rights, protections, duties and means are the same for all human beings.
3) Since our capacities differ, then exceptions to 2 must always go in the direction of restoring an equal access for all, to the first foundation of ethics 1. (This is the resolution of the paradox between 1 and 2).
4) The three previous foundations are the expression of Transcendence (Universal scope)
Contrarily to most previous «morality systems», General Epistemology uses non-Aristotelian logic, to provide with more gradated indications.
It also deals with the differing capacities, abilities and weaknesses of people, or their situations of dependency toward each other.
The part also deals with ecology, economy (since it is a subset of ecology), democracy and why it does not work as well as expected.
To know the basic purpose in consciousness allows to envision a better society, based on the pursuit of the said purpose. It is the only way to obtain a stable happiness.
Indispensable additions are psychoeducation (how to remove our psychological defects), beauty and integration in nature.
The observation of parapsychological phenomena, inexplicable by physics, is simply explained by the Logical Self-Generation Theory, without invoking any ad-hoc metaphysics.
Usually the logical self-generation process of the physical world sends data toward the logical self-generation process of the consciousness.
However, the existence of free will shows that other information paths are possible. This is confirmed by an increasing body of science observations and personal experiences.
Moreover, each communication modality matches a specific category of parapsychological phenomena! For instance free will and super-consciousness moments happen when information from our consciousness influence our neural networks, while psychokinesis happens when information passes from the consciousness to the physical world around us.
Yes, those parapsychological phenomena are just that: information passing between two usually separated logical self-generation processes, which produces normally impossible things. This is possible because the material realm has no more existence force than the consciousness realm.
This is very interesting, as it gives a simple explanation to this whole set of phenomena and of «magic», without any need for strange or improvable elements.
This provides with the general theoretical frame that parapsychologists are longing for. In more, all this is very palatable to classical science (with some efforts...). Still many problems remain, like how to provoke these phenomena, which otherwise remain rare and elusive. Yet the recent semi-public occurrence of strong parapsychological phenomena like the Tukdam, in well defined conditions, makes the study of this field mandatory. Everybody must know!
This part also deals with UFOs, interpreted as temporary domains of space with modified self-generation laws (John E Mack hypothesis, reworded).
One of the differences between physics and consciousness is that consciousness is often non-Aristotelian (not based on Boolean logic). Worse still, all the theories explained in this book cannot fit into a single Aristotelian axiomatic system. This is why I devote the first part of «General Epistemology» to non-Aristotelian logic and to non-conceptual thinking.
I base this study on the Sets Theory, but using different versions of the first axiom: different membership criteria, for example analogical, or with intricate elements. The recent mastery of artificial neural networks brilliantly confirmed this part, written in 2000.
This part on logic also has an important purpose: people often oppose moral values, such as discipline and freedom, innovation and stability, men and women, when they are inseparable non-duality. These many errors of type of logic are the main source of suffering and chaos in today societies, while they can easily be avoided with simple beginner's meditations. Hence the inestimable value of non-Aristotelian logics, in terms of happiness.
We posit that the physical world is a logical self-generation process, which nib is the quantum interaction, and which self-generation law is the set of the laws of physics. This logically explains all the apparent absurdities of Quantum Mechanics and of General Relativity:
-Time and space have no intrinsic existence, they are the structure of the set of all the quantum events, in the meaning of the Sets Theory. It is this structure that we perceive as the space-time.
-A nib cannot know its position in relation to non-existent space and time, only in relation to the other particles with which it interacts. This leads directly to Relativity.
-The singularity of the Big Bang is explained by the resolution of the paradox about the existence of the universe. The Big Bang therefore needs nor external cause neither prior causes (chapter III-3).
-What physicists call «symmetry breaking» in the early universe are bifurcations of the initial logical self-generation process (chapitre III-3). I even allowed myself, in version 1, to predict that this can still happen today. And it was actually observed since, in the RHIC experiment at Brookhaven.
-All the strange quantum properties of matter, non-locality, atemporality, entanglement, etc., are the result of its purely logical nature. This leads to a positive formulation of the Copenhagen Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics: «The logical relations between the elements of our universe are enough to explain it entirely, including the fact that we can observe and feel it, without the need for these elements to 'exist materially'».
-The fact that a photon cannot be observed along its path is easy to explain, if it does not exist. In fact, there is a unique quantum interaction between the sender and the receiver. Only Relativity makes us see a photon moving from the one to the other. This explains boson particles.
-For fermions, we have charges, which are transmitted from one nib to another, giving the appearance of a «solid» particle moving along a trajectory.
-Physicists always reason about particles being each in a given place and date. The Logical Self Generation Theory reasons the other way around: particles have no intrinsic place, it is their interactions which confers them the appearance of a close or distant place, relative to each other. But if particles interacted at arbitrarily high distance throughout the universe, we would have multiple contradictory cause and effect paths. This is why the principle of economy of absurdity (chapter III-3) forced a specific self-generation law: the set of quantum interactions organises itself as the Minkovsky space of Relativity, where no such incoherence can happen. Do interactions between particles throughout the universe still happen? Yes, within the limitations of Relativity. And these interactions appear as photons, as explained above. This «reverted» way of thinking may lead scientists on the solution of many hard problems, for instance quantum gravity: the macroscopic curved space of General Relativity is the structure of the set of the nibs (quantum events), itself resulting from their microscopic properties.
-If the «strange» quantum effects are a consequence of the fact that the material universe is a logical self-generation process, we can also expect to find these quantum effects in many other self-generation processes. We shall see some about consciousness, but in this case it is better to put the word «quantum» between quotation marks, so as not to give fodder to the pseudo-sciences.
Added in January 2024: Today it seems that the physicist replaced the quantum interaction by the «quantum fields», as the basis for the description of the universe. This seems to make the nibs less pertinent, but I think the general reasoning about logical self-generation theory is still valid, just less intuitive. I do not intend to update the book, that would be a lot of work, starting with studying first the quantum fields theory, about which very little information are available to the public.
We evaluate here the probability of extraterrestrial civilizations to appear, examining Drake's formula factor per factor. This is the most accurate estimate (in 2017) of the distance to our nearest neighbors (In the order of 30 to 100 light-years). We conclude with new hypotheses on the Fermi paradox, the evolution of civilizations, and better methods for SETI.
Is this work recognized by the scientific community, or by other communities of thinkers? Unfortunately it seems mostly ignored: I have very few returns (2023). Although they all are positive. So maybe it is up to you to start the process?
On the other hand, I am having some experimental confirmation, outlined with this background: experimental confirmations or independent «rediscoveries». About «rediscoveries», I have no proofs of plagiat until now, but I not either have any proof of attribution or reconnaissance.
Of course, it would be interesting to check the theory with experiments. This however is beyond my personnal possibilities.
So I think we need to start with making the theory known, and especially to use it. I then propose discussion places, to meet between researchers.
Here is the short book, summarized, for a first contact:
Here is the long, integral book, with all the developments, history, discussion, etc.: