Note 1: I specify Iranian for well emphasising that there is not only in the West that there is good science. In many other countries also exist intelligent peoples able to make beautiful things.
Note 2: Heuristics is a method which contributes to discovery, to knowledge. This word is weak where it is used here, because it is a matter of passing from an epistemological and logical system to another.
Note 3: The meditation is also a non-action (note 44) of the mind, where it contemplates the object of meditation (or the absence of object in certain exercises) without tension nor attempt. The meditative state can be acquired with adapted exercises, where the comprehension of what is necessary to do improves gradually.
Note 4: Guru. Of course it is necessary to understand this word in its exact and positive traditional meaning of spiritual teacher, and not in its deviated meaning of head of a cult (note 48). In our epoch of spiritual revival, such a confusion is not acceptable any more and I will consider it as a deliberate mind control attempt. It is exactly like if, after having been conned by a dubious banker, we use the word «banker» to mean a «swindler». OK, but what to do if we need a bank account? We speak about gurus at several places of this book, in particular in chapter 50.
Note 5: Hypostasis, this word has the subtle sense of a concept, hidden or implicit, plated on another visible and expressed. The hidden concept unconsciously takes the place of the expressed one in the reasoning, thus leading to distorted and even catastrophic conclusions. The most common hypostasis is to see an human group as a clan: we then have the hallucination of all the members of this group having the same intent. This word has a more restrained meaning in Catholic philosophy.
Note 7: Utopia. An English philosopher, Thomas Moore, made the effort to invent this word to indicate a reality which was new for the time, and very useful: A project of society, an ideal mental construction with as a purpose: reflection and inspiration. For example the democracy Utopia. With these conditions it appears very manipulative to have pirated this word to use it in another meaning (impossible) which leads to nefarious confusions with the first (it would be impossible to improve the society...). We need to be careful, because all the dictionaries still contain this blunder, and some do not even mention the correct meaning. Of course I always use the word Utopia in his exact meaning of project, plan going in the direction of an improvement, and not in its newspeak meaning of impossible.
Note 8: Although we could examine the contribution of quadripolar logic to certain quantum non-dualities of particles, objects which are not always clearly separated. We could also use an hexapolar logic (see end of chapter I-6) for the chromodynamic quantum theory (Which states would occupy a prismatic volume). I leave these questions to people who know them better than me.
Note 9: The reader will thus wonder with a half smile how spiritual Masters and mystics could have existed before me. It is that I did not discovered anything; quadripolar logic was contained implicitly in the majority of the Eastern spiritual teachings; Its reasonings were used case by case individually, and I did nothing but extract it, show it, name it, generalise it and formalise it with the diagram. I would not even be surprised if the scholars of India find it explained in their ancient books, and sketches functioning like my diagram could decorate certain humanist books, or studies of psychology or sociology.
Note 10: Limited development. Without entering into exact but complicated mathematical definitions, let us say that functions are represented by curves on a diagram, which make possible to make quantity of calculations. For example the function sine is used in electricity, mechanics, cartography, astronomy... Unfortunately the function sine is transcendent, in the meaning that there exist no exact method to calculate the curve. But we can use simpler functions, for example a line, easy to calculate. This line is tangent with the sine curve at a certain place, then it moves away from there gradually. As long as we do not move too far away of the tengancy point, the error is tiny, in any case tolerable for the calculation which we make. If we want more accuracy, we can use a parabola instead of a line, or a series of other curves more complex but always calculable. This process is used very often, especially in the computers and all the pocket calculators.
Note 11: Marxism and capitalism: Yes, twins, because they differ only with one gene: one is the clan of the workers, the other that of the owners. Put besides this negligible detail, all their philosophical and metaphysical basements are identical. In terms of quadripolar logic, they are horizontally reciprocal situations (which differ only by an inversion from Yin to Yang or vice versa). As we can logically expect, despite so much sincere utopians who tried to do something good with the Marxism, the concrete results of both systems are very comparable, in particular on the environment.
Note 12: To visualise consists in forming a mental image, for example when the image of a scene is remembered. Imagination allows us to create new mental images. Many scientists wrongly use the word «intuition» for a «visualisation».
Note 13: At least as long as the system of collective control was allowed to function properly, which was not always the case (Gupta case in India, Lysenkism in USSR)
Note 14: Experiencer: this term seems to have been invented by people interested in the phenomena of abductions, about which I shall speak in chapter 67
Note 15: Let us quote for example the scientology «church» which tries to give itself a legitimacy with a kind of bogus «scientifical approach» that they compare with that of Buddhism.
Note 16: A Boddhisattva is a being who gives up his personal happiness, with as an aim to help others to be happy them too. This Buddhist concept can easily be extended to other spiritual paths. For example the Buddhists regard Jesus as a Boddhisattva.
Note 17: Semantics is the study of the significance of the words, compared to the reality which they try to indicate. It is what we do in this chapter II-6 .
Note 21: Fractal. In a fractal space, patterns present at a certain scale of size are also found at other scales, smaller or larger (property known as of self-similarity, or scale invariance) This makes that the properties of the objects do not depend on their size. For example a fractal bird could fly whatever its size, whereas in our three dimensional universe a 10cm bird flies and one of ten meters does not fly.
Mathematically a fractal is a space with a fractional number of dimension, for example 2,5. In this case it is an intermediary between the plane and the volume. It can be for example a network of an infinite number of points separated by vacuums in three dimensions.
As soon as 1974, well before the fractals were discovered, I had imagined a fractal network of economic relations, which had the enormous advantage of not making depend the economic solutions on problem of scale, in particular in the delicate question of the power of basic peoples in large structures (Chapter 59). In this system, all the scales are the human scale. However I had not generalised the concept of fractal, nor given its mathematical definition, therefore I cannot claim to be the discoverer of it.
Note 23: The purpose of the palliative cares is to give again a worthy life to an ill person and his relatives, by suppression of the suffering (analgesia), an human listening and tender care. The results are often very interesting, in particular by the resolution of deeply anchored psychological problems, even with spiritual awakenings, at the propitious threshold of death.
Note 24: In this theory the planets were formed at the occasion of a quasi-collision of stars, an extremely rare phenomenon which condemned planets, and a fortiori life, to be very dispersed in cosmos.
Note 25: The Drake formula gives the probability of having inhabited planets by multiplying various estimations: that for a star to have planets, for a planet to be at the good distance, etc... The recent astronomical discoveries give fast increasing values to all these assumptions, except those within a more philosophical field, such as the lifespan of a civilisation, the only example we know not much raising optimism.
Note 26: SETI: Search for extraterrestrial Intelligence by the detection of radio waves supposed to be of technical origin, using a very powerful scanner able to analyse a very great number of frequencies at the same time. Indeed this task is immense and perfectly detectable waves could pass unperceived for years.
Note 30: Ummo case. In the years 1970, mainly in Spain, many scientists and journalists received letters from «Ummo extra-terrestrials» containing «scientific revelations». C. Poher, director of the GEPAN at that time, had made an optical expertise on the photos of the «Ummo saucer», showing their falseness without any ambiguity. However the authors and the motivation of this trickery, as well as its complex political ramifications, are still disputed.
Despite this, these letters are still presented by some as true extraterrestrial messages, and, as such, placed by them on the Internet, in order to counteract the «censorship». I read some of them, and found only bad science-fiction, not much incentive to spend time to discuss this case.
Note 31: Trans en Provence, France: A witness saw a small object in the shape of a rugby ball briefly run up against the ground, leaving blackish traces. Precise analyses showed modifications of the chemical composition of the ground and spectacular deteriorations of the metabolism of the grasses around the contact point. Although it is uneasy to guess how to interpret these analysis, they are regarded as one of the most serious evidence of the physical reality of the UFOs, especially from the fact that they were carried out by an official organisation using a controlled and rigorous methodology.
Note 34: I followed my studies until Mathématiques Supérieures (First two years in University), but they outdistanced me well before the end of the year. The blame goes to various bad advices, which removed my stamina, althought I was able and it was my project. This said, we can note that the fact that it is almost essential, to reach responsibility functions in the society, to pass by schools where it is required to endure an inhuman work rate disregarding any private life, like in a cult, this perhaps explains why these functions are often occupied by certainly excellent technicians but unable to apprehend the least elementary human aspects of their decisions.
Note 35: Decoherence. Quantum information (superimposed states not yet expressed) is lost as soon as an information comes out of the studied quantum system (by a contact, a photon, etc...) and this system becomes «ordinary» (only one state). It is the decoherence, which usually occurs in so short a time that we cannot even measure it. This makes that it seems at first sight impossible to build a quantum computer. However the discovery of simple systems with decoherence time of several minutes started again the debate, «except in France...». More generally, the decoherence is what makes that the quantum world of the particles behaves in the strange way that we know, whereas the ordinary world (objects formed of a great number of particles) generally does not show quantum effects.
Note 36: Self-contained sets. For example if we considers all the sets having more than n elements. As there is an infinity of sets having an infinite number of elements, whatever n there is an infinity of sets of more than n elements. Therefore the set of the sets with more than n elements has itself more than n elements. It absolutely is an element of itself. In more as there are an infinity of values of n, the sets of this type are in an infinite number.
Note 40: Sakya Trizin is the actual head of one of the four schools of the Tibetan Buddhism, the Sakyapas, which dates from the 11th century. He is also one of the greatest spiritual Masters living today on Earth, and a character who can be at the same time very impressive and very simple, very human.
Note 41: «Abstract» means literally «extracted from» and was first used about logical relations and mathematical structures we can find on concrete objects. But it was quickly generalized to anything which cannot be directly sensed or experienced with the sensory organs. This word often contains an hypostasis (note 5) of «inexistant» or «imaginary». For this reason we thoroughly avoided to use this word, except between quotation marks, to point at the speech of whose who use it.
Note 42: Chinese Fascists I avoided to write sentences such as «the Chineses invaded Tibet» to be respectful for the Chinese people itself, which I do not want to compare to the criminals who currently rule them. The Chineses of China had as much to suffer from oppression by this violent, perverse and lying government, which, from opponent source, is responsible of the death of more than one hundred million Chinese, and which currently detains ten to twenty million persons who practically are slaves. See also note 63.
Note 44: Non-action. As we saw in chapter I-3, it is a non-duality between the fact of acting and the fact of making nothing useless.The prefix non- should not be understood here as a complete negation (chapter I-3) (to make absolutely nothing) but an absence of useless action, non-adapted to the situation, rising only from our grasping, our self-centredness, our uncontrolled emotions, our neuroses, our prejudices... The non-action is the right action, it can be indeed to do nothing, or just a little, but it can sometimes be very brutal, if the situation justifies this.
In 2003 in Bhutan, and in 2009 in Sri Lanka, terrorists had good opportunities to meditate the non-action of their respective governments. We don't much hear of them since.
Note 45: The principle of the Occam razor, or economy of assumptions, states that among several assumptions it is generally better to choose the simplest, or the less we can. It is often held up as if it was an absolute law (c.f. the movie «Contact») by opponents to spirituality or to extraterrestrial life, and generally by followers of the materialist reductionism. But with using the Occam razor too much it may become blunt, because reality is not inevitably simple; sometimes complex or apparently illogical assumptions prove to be good. This second principle (of accepting sometimes odd assumptions) was called «logical annealing», in comparison with the metallurgical annealing process which breaks useless molecular links and allows to rework the metal. Its purpose is to get our reasonings out of their ruts, to allow them for some altitude, to set out again in a better direction. I myself used it to produce the content of this book, which is an incredible bridge between very different domains, and which inevitably escapes any attempt to reduce it to «something already known». The Occam razor is, and is only, a good heuristic principle (note 2) to use with moderation. If Volta had applied it, he would not have accepted the hypothesis of an «unknown electrical fluid», and he would not have discovered electricity.
Note 48: Cults. In all this text, I use the word «cult» only in the nowadays pejorative meaning of a dangerous organisation, or displaying a fancy spirituality, and not in the ancient neutral meaning of small spiritual organisation. Everyone should be careful to this distinction, especially in reading texts from before the 1970'. More, this change in the meaning is not accepted by all in the English speaking countries, where cults are less criticised, and the ancient meaning is still used today (2000). We must be also careful to a common manipulation, where this word is used abusively, with purpose of repressing spirituality, with systematically calling it cult. I somewhat speak of sects in chapter 40, chapter 50, chapter 62, and settle their account in chapter 63.
Sensitive dependency to the initial
conditions. In chaotic systems (
Note 60: Conviviality. In 1973 a French philosopher, Ivan Illich, in a book «La convivialité», among various social theories, proposed this word to indicate a social, economical or technical system which could be easily appropriated by persons by imposing less constraints: social difficulties, technical complexity, need for specialised knowledge, distanciation, pollution, solution found in a place at the expense of other difficulties elsewhere, hidden or unexpected harmful consequences... We could translate this by social-friendly, ecology-friendly, people-friendly, etc... This concept and this word were sufficiently publicly used by ecologists so that it can be regarded as a part of the general knowledge from this time, in the meaning defined by its inventor.
In French, a weakened but still acceptable meaning appeared about in 1978 in computer science (user-friendly) and then, in French again, a deviated meanings: jovial, communicative, who likes fun and feasts (confusion with «convive», French for guest) and finally in the worst newspeak: pornography, alcohol drinking, etc...
This example is typically the kind of language manipulation which I denounce, when they are due to stupidity as well as when it is a conscious and deliberated mind control. The fixity of the definition of a word is at the very base essential to our freedom of expression (Otherwise the meaning of a text varies with time, together with its historical interpretation, as in the Orwell's «1984», where one makes revisionism without being conscious of it) especially when an author, whatever he is, tried hard to reflect, to create a concept, and to find a name to it. Especially when a concept has a significance very useful for the comprehension and the resolution of our problems! Then do not touch «my» words ©©©©©©© otherwise grr...
Note 61: Cold fusion. About in 1990 some researchers affirmed somewhat hastily to have obtained nuclear fusion reaction of hydrogen at ambient temperature, using chemical catalysts and electrolysis. This affair made a great noise, because of the enormous hope of obtaining a source of very abundant energy. Disappointment was only harder and taught a lesson to the scientific community about such spectacular announces.
Note 62: Memory of water. About in 1990 a French researcher named Benveniste, known for his supports to alternative medicines, announced to have found a materially observable effect of great homeopathic dilutions, using a super sensitive equipment. The refutation was somewhat delicate, but sufficient (background noise of equipment, residues on the containers...). As for cold fusion (note 61) the scientific community was taught a lesson, but we shall note anyway that, as soon as Benveniste's announcement, and despite the disturbing confirmation of homeopathy that it implied, more than ten laboratories in the world attempted to reproduce the experiment, and the scientific popularisation reviews published several papers on it. So we are far of a «stupid censorship» from scientists.
Note 63: To reduce to two clans the inhabitants of two countries in war. (see reductionism, chapter II-7) It is quite obvious that the inhabitants of a given country have a whole variety of opinions and behaviours, and when this country starts a war, it will be inevitably with the disapproval of a part of its citizens. This is well known, since «mechanisms» were envisaged (conscription, military «courts», requisition, forced draft...) to force the citizens to anyway take part in the war. This is always true, even in extreme cases, as for the German army during the second world war: Certain German soldiers refused to take part in the massacres of Jews (hitler itself had left them this possibility!) Without counting the officers who refused to execute the command to destroy Paris, or tempted to eliminate the führer. This is why it is not fair that ALL the German prisoners in Russia were send in concentration camps (no one returned) or that ALL the Japaneses residing in the USA were parked in misery camps, whereas ALL the German prisoners in the West were released as soon as the war finished, including whose who volontary accepted to do acts of war. It is thus very generally not possible to make bear the responsibility of a war to ALL the citizens of a country, nor to even exonerate of any responsibility the citizens of an attacked country (still about nazism, let us quote the guilty blindness of the dull democracies, collaboration...). It is even often impossible to arrange them in camps in all or nothing, because each individual is complex (Many Germans who adhered to nazism made this naively, without examining all the implications, and regretted it after. For us who know the end of the story, no hesitation is possible, but for those who were immersed at that time in propaganda and terror, it was quite less simple and much more courageous to make the good choice...) Thus the view «the good Frenchs» and «the bad Germans» is false and dishonest, even in the case of the nazism. If we have to intervene in this kind of situation, pay attention to this manicheism, which often made more bloodshed than the starting aggression.
Note 67: Condensation of Böse-Einstein. It is there too a very curious phenomenon predicted by Quantum Mechanics and really observed recently. The ordinary matter particles obey the laws of Fermi-Dirac, which prohibit them to be several at the same place (more precisely not in the same quantum state, complex concept involving the place and energy, and which are «numbered» by integers) This property is at the origin of the ordinary matter appearing solid and incompressible (when the authorised zones «touch» each other). On the contrary, the particles of light (photons) obey the laws of Böse-Einstein, which authorise them to be superimposed in an infinite number at the same place: beams of light cross and go through each other without disturbing each other. The photons can even be superimposed exactly in the same state, as in a laser.
But it is also possible to make behave the ordinary matter according to laws of Böse-Einstein, under certain conditions, in particular of extreme cold, very near to the absolute zero (of millionth of degrees!). One thus observed atoms gathered in only one «giant atom» identical to an individual atom, except for the mass, and even the equivalent of a matter «laser»: atoms with perfectly identical movements! More surprising, in this new matter state, the light moves at a speed of ... a few metres per second!
Note 72: incommensurable. Usually this word is understood as «very big», but the correct meaning is «which cannot be measured in the same way». The length and width of a rectangle can be measured with the same unit, even if they are very different. But its color and its length cannot: they are incommensurable. A fortiori emotions cannot be measured with any ruler, and we can even not associate them a number expressing their intensity.
Note 73: Branes and multiple universes. Physics, exploring time backward, discovered that in ancient times, the universe existed in a very small and dense state, probably starting from a zero size, which would have dilated, undergoing a gigantic explosion. This is commonly refered as the Big Bang. The problem which arises at time zero is that, without space, no physical law can play (This is the problem of the singularity). Things get much worse if we consider what could have happened «before» the Big Bang, what provoked it: space and even time being created at the time of the Big bang, there is no sense to speak of «before» the Big Bang! This situation will make a (non dogmatic) Christian feel easy, as he will see in the Big Bang the instant of the Creation. But physicists are much disturbed, as they do not see how such an important event could have taken place without any material cause to provoke it.
An attempt of physicists to go round the problem is the one I myself imagined as soon as 1971: our universe with three dimentions would be included in an universe with four dimensions, or more, in the same way a surface with two dimentions (such as the surface of a sphere) is included into our universe with three dimentions.
If we imagine two spherical surfaces (membranes, with two dimensions in this case) which go into each other, their intersection, with one dimension, is a circle, which diametre, starting from zero, starts to grow very fast, and then more slowly. Some physicists think that our universe with three dimensions could be the intersection of two «surfaces» with four dimensions (the branes, «membranes» with more than two dimensions), which movement would produce the Big Bang and the expansion which followed. However the irregularities of expansion speak against this theory.
A more crafty view is to think that our universe may have a more complex shape than the traditionnal hypersphere (equivalent of the surface of a sphere, but in three dimentions in place of two). In this case, we could have a succession of Big Bangs, giving an universe in the shape of grape fruit. Or our universe would inflate in the way of these saucage shaped balloons used in fairies, where the already inflated parts sill more inflate, when a not yet inflated tail remains small. If this was true, then the Big Bang would be a permanent event, which would still be happening somewhere: our universe would have an umbilic.
These four dimention physics (hyperphysics) could explain the Big Bang. However they just reject the ultimate explanation of existence into an untestable domain... with no more cause than the simple theory
Note 75: Juridical Positivism. Conception proposed par Auguste Comte, which justifies moral and laws only with autority and consensus, without ever basing it on fundamental values such as compassion or avoiding suffering. The very obvious inconvenience is that if the ideas of the marquis de Sade became the majority, then rapt, rape and torture would become legal and would be considered as «legitimate», and we would be unable to question them.
Note 76: Michelson Morley experiment. In the 1880 years,this experiment was an attempt to prove the existence of the aether, by measuring the «aether wind» caused by the movement of Earth in space. Failure to find any aether wind led to the abandonment of the aether theory. This ununderstandable result was explained in 1905 by Einstein's theory of relativity.
In a general way, negative experiments (failure to find an expected phenomena) sign for the failure of a whole theory. Another more complex theory has to be found. Heuristically, this is an instance where science has to go against the principle of the Occam Razor.
Note 77: Pascal's Wager. At an epoch where the libertine movement was starting to challenge the religious authority, thinkers like Blaise Pascal tried to defend religion on the very intellectual ground of the libertines. However, without being able to rely on the challenged dogma, he quickly stumbled of the problem of the intestability of the existence of God. Pascal's Wager shows that, in the uncertainty, to accept the existence of God, and to behave accordingly, brings many benefits, without losing anything essential. But we shall see in chapter xxx on God, that, even of most dogma about Him are really intestable and useless, on the other hand His very existence is perfectly testable. But it is so simple and so obvious that very few cared of it...
The reasoning about Pascal's Wager is in facts so simple, that I was able to lead it myself, at the age of 10 (about 1963), without any guidance or contact with any other philosophy. Even if I wanted to be a scientist (which in this epoch was meaning atheist), I easily noticed the ethical value of the religious message (of Jesus in the instance). So it was easy to understand that my interest was to behave in an ethical way, and to make of the love of others one of the great directions of my life (what I am still doing today, 50 years later). With such a commitment, even if the speech of the priests turned to be strictly true, God would pardon me not to have trusted the said priests, while dropping ethics would be an unforgivable fault, even with people with their knees worn by the Mass.
Note 78: Wikipedia. I need to honestly warn that Wikipedia is far from being ideologically neutral. While it is often the best information source on many topics, its anonymous redaction process, its lack of reference to concrete reality and its propension to quote defamatory allegations as if they were relevant facts, much serve its blatant materialistic and rationalist slant.
At the time of writing my text, I put this note about pages which show an obvious slant or lack of content. However one should be aware that the content of Wikipedia pages is often changed, and even reverted to completely different meanings. A good page can become bad, and a bad page can become good. So, not only the Wikipedia truth is relative, but in more it changes with time.
I myself tried several times to add informations, or to correct false informations. But, with only one exception, all my contributions were erased within 2-3 hours, without any trace in the discussion page. So clearly the claim of Wikipedia to be users-created is very visibly false, Wikipedia is created and maintained by a team of people having defined ideological purposes.
Note 79: epicycles. Epicycles were supplementary circles used by astronomers, to calculate the movement of the planets within the Ptolemy system, where the Earth was supposed to be at the centre of the solar system. Copernicus and Galileo found that the Earth is not at the centre, but that it rotates around the sun instead. This made the complex apparent movement of the planets a simple effect of perspective, seen from the moving Earth. So epicycles were no longer necessary.
So, the word «epicycle» can be used to mean something useless, which does only complicating things, but is felt as necessary due to our wrong understanding of a simpler problem.