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General Epistemology        Chapter I-1       





This part is to present some basis of logics which will be useful for understanding the other parts. Also, what is the matter with «science logic» and «heart logic»? After recalling some known things, I expose a new quadripolar logic, which, in the second part on epistemology, will help us to understand many fundamental errors of our societies. There also are some notions, simple or subtle, on the limits of logic and theories.


Chapter I-1 WHAT IS LOGIC?


Logic is what allows, knowing some aspects of reality, to deduce some other unknown or inaccessible aspects.

A logical statement is an affirmation that our consciousness makes about an object. We mean here by «object» all what consciousness is likely to examine: material object, number, moral law, abstracted idea, even imaginary idea, utility or play subject, common, philosophical or religious subject... and even consciousness itself.

We note, each time we can check it, that the logical statements are connected together with relations such as «and» «or» «thus»... which make possible to create or deduce other statements and so to discover objects or aspects of reality other than those already known. Logic is thus extremely useful for our life conduct, whatever fields and motivations we consider. Nature is never illogical, and if we think we found an error, it is because we did not used the good reasoning. It is remarkable that nature always obeys logical or mathematical laws, simple or complex, obvious or subtle.

A very simple and common example of logical reasoning is «Sabrina does not reply the phone, so she is not at home». From an observable fact «Sabrina does not reply the phone», we safely deduce another unknown fact «she is not at home». This property of logic makes it very practical for the most ordinary life, but this is also the base of all the mathematics, legal inquiries, technologies and science.

 Logic is studied in Occident since the highest antiquity by philosophers, and also in other countries like India. It is only recently (17th Century) that it became a domain of its own: mathematics. The logic which is still used as a basis for Western civilisation was formalised by Aristotle, 4th Century before Christ, from where its name of Aristotelian logic. Nothing essential was discovered since, except recently gradated and fuzzy logics. But other sources, mainly spiritual or Easterner, mention other kinds of logics, called «non-Aristotelian», or «intuitive», or «from the heart». The purpose of this first part is to introduce these «new» logics, in a rational, exact and understandable way, after recalling «our» logic.







General Epistemology        Chapter I-1       







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